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Product parameters
Trade Name: Coenzyme CNS
Product Name: L-Carnosine
INCI Name: Carnosine
Other Names: Carnosine
CAS No.: 305-84-0
Assay: 98%min
Certification: ISO9001; ISO 14001; ISO 18001
Packing Sizes: 25KG
L-Carnosine is a dipeptide composed of 8-alanine and L-histidine, which is widely present in the muscle tissue and brain tissue of vertebrates. As an endogenous dipeptide in the animal body, L-Carnosine has many important biological activities. This article introduces the main physiological functions and mechanisms of L-Carnosine, as well as the application of L-Carnosine in actual production.
1. The distribution and metabolism of L-Carnosine in animals
L-Carnosine is mainly found in muscle cells and some oligodendrocytes. The content of L-Carnosine in skeletal muscle is higher than that in other tissues, and its concentration reaches 20mM, accounting for 0.2-0.5% of net muscle weight. The concentration of L-Carnosine is regulated by L-Carnosine synthase and myomenase: L- Carnosine synthetase mainly exists in D-Glial cell lines and skeletal muscle cells, and uses 8-alanine and histidine to synthesize L-Carnosine; L-Carnosine enzyme mainly exists in D-Sera and specifically decomposes L-Carnosine.
Studies have pointed out that the content of L-Carnosine in cells is related to the differentiation state and cell type of cells. The concentration of L-Carnosine in muscle cells undergoing glycolysis increases, and L-Carnosine in type II B fibers of equine skeletal muscle The concentration is 5 times that of type I fibers. In addition, the concentration of L-Carnosine in the cells decreased with the increase of animal age. Marlin et al. found that the concentration of L-Carnosine in the muscles of horses decreased with the increase of age; Johnson et al. also found that the level of L-Carnosine in the muscles of mice increased with Decrease with aging.
There are also some related dipeptides formed by L-Carnosine through methylation, acetylation and deshutting in the body, such as goose peptide and snake peptide. The structure of anose peptide is B-alanine-L-1-methylhistidine, with a molecular weight of 303.3da. The structural composition of snake peptide is 8-alanine-L-3-methylhistidine. These modifications reduce the degradation rate of L-Carnosine-related complexes by L-Carnosine enzyme and extend its half-life in the blood.
2, The main physiological function and mechanism of L-Carnosine
2.1 Anti-aging and juvenile effects on cells
L-Carnosine has obvious properties of delaying cell senescence. Studies have shown that after adding physiological concentration (30mM) of L-L-Carnosine to fibroblasts cultured in vitro, the fibroblasts can continue to divide up to 413 days after inoculation, while the control group (without L-Carnosine) cells were Growth stopped at 126d and 139d after inoculation, indicating that L-L-Carnosine can greatly prolong the survival time of fibroblasts in vitro. Hipkiss proposed a hypothesis to explain the anti-aging activity of L-Carnosine: L-Carnosine can react with the residue groups on the oxidized protein-carnosine, and this reaction can inhibit the cross-linking between the glycated protein and normal macromolecules. Non-enzymatic glycosylation of protein is a phenomenon related to aging. The preferential glycosylation sites are amino groups and residue groups close to imidteryl groups, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and intermediate products of glycolysis. Both are effective saccharifying agents, which can induce protein modification and cause aging. L-Carnosine can protect proteins by preferentially reacting with these aldehydes and ketones. In addition, DNA oxidative damage is also one of the main causes of cell aging. 8-Hydroxydehydrobird moaning is one of the main products of DNA oxidative damage. L-L-Carnosine can significantly reduce the formation of 8-hydroxydehydroguanosine. It is speculated that the anti-aging properties of L-L-Carnosine may be related to inhibiting the formation of 8-hydroxydehydroguanosine in cells.
2.2 Antioxidant effect
L-Carnosine is an antioxidant and free radical scavenger. The antioxidant mechanism of L-Carnosine may be related to its scavenging of free radicals and chelation of metal ions. L-Carnosine can scavenge free radicals and inactivate hydroxyl groups and singlet oxygen. Studies have shown that L-Carnosine can interact with most free radicals (such as OH groups, OC1 groups) to regulate the content of active oxygen. L-Carnosine can directly interact with lipid peroxidation products and superoxide anion free radicals, which can reduce the oxidation rate of membrane lipids and has membrane protection properties. According to reports, L-Carnosine can donate a hy-drogen atom to peroxidation free radicals, thereby preventing the action of hydroperoxide-mediated Cu and Zn superoxide dismutase. L-Carnosine can also react with low molecular weight aldehydes and ketone compounds or aldehyde ester oxidation products to reduce the concentration of aldehyde compounds in the tissue and improve the oxidative stability of muscle tissue. The inhibitory effect of L-Carnosine on lipid oxidation is concentration-dependent, and the inhibition of lipid oxidation is up to 60% at a concentration of 10mM.
2.3 Chelation of metal ions
L-Carnosine is an effective metal ion chelating agent, and its chelating activity depends on the type of metal ion. L-Carnosine zinc chelate can scavenge superoxide anion groups; L-Carnosine copper chelate has SOD activity to resist the invasion of superoxide anion free radicals. As a metal ion chelating agent, L-Carnosine can play two roles: On the one hand, L-Carnosine chelates with metals to promote the transport and absorption of metal ions. For example, in the intestinal tract, L-Carnosine can act as a zinc ion absorption carrier to promote the transport and absorption of zinc ions. Moreover, during the absorption process, L-Carnosine zinc is decomposed into carnosine and zinc ions into the blood circulation, thus exerting their respective physiological functions. On the other hand, L-Carnosine can chelate with metal ions to inhibit the oxidation reaction induced by metal ions. The oxidation induced by myoglobin iron, hemoglobin iron and non-heme iron in pork can damage cell membranes, increase cell fluid loss, reduce taste and change meat color. L-Carnosine can form a chelate with iron ions, adjust its concentration in body fluids and tissues, and inhibit the oxidation reaction induced by iron ions. Therefore, L-Carnosine may have a positive effect on the improvement of meat quality.
2.4 Impact on neuromodulation
L-Carnosine is widely present in the glial cells of the brain tissue. Trombley and other studies have shown that: L-Carnosine can affect the effects of Zn and Cu on amino acid receptors and synapses, thereby indirectly regulating the excitability of neurons. L-Carnosine coexists with Zn and Cu at the end of olfactory sensory neurons, and chelate with transition metal ions to indirectly affect the amino acid receptors of olfactory bulb neurons. When the concentration of L-Carnosine is about 1mM, it can only slightly reduce the influence of 30uMZn on the current mediated by NMDA or GABA receptors. 100uML-Carnosine can completely block the antagonistic effect of 30uMCu on the membrane current induced by 100uM NMDA or 30uMGABA. Based on these results, a hypothesis was proposed: L-Carnosine can act as an indirect neuromodulator by regulating the effects of Zn and Cu.
When the brain is ischemic, L-Carnosine can reduce mortality and improve the animal's neurological condition; when the heart is ischemic, L-Carnosine can protect myocardial cells from damage and improve the contractile function of the heart. Researchers believe that the anti-ischemic effect of L-Carnosine is a comprehensive manifestation of its various functions: antioxidant and membrane protection activities, proton buffering power, formation of complexes with metals, and regulation of macrophage functions.
2.5 Maintain the stability of the pH value between cells
L-Carnosine can be used as a pH buffer to regulate in the body. Researchers believe that high concentrations of histidine peptides in mammalian skeletal muscle play an important role in adapting to high-speed exercise and prolonging tissue hypoxia. During vigorous exercise, muscles rapidly produce ATP through anaerobic glycolysis and the concentration of lactic acid increases. The accumulation of lactic acid leads to an increase in H. At this time, histidine dipeptide acts as an important H* buffer, which can ensure the stability of cell pH. In the normal physiological range.
2. 6 other physiological functions
L-Carnosine and B-alanine can play an immunomodulatory effect by activating B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. Nagaik et al. believe that L-Carnosine is a physiological stimulating factor that promotes granulation in the process of tissue healing, can accelerate wound healing, and non-specifically increase immunity. L-Carnosine can affect the transmission of NO-sGC-cGMP signaling system in cells by inhibiting the activity of cGMP cyclase (sGC) activated by NO donors. This is because L-Carnosine reacts with heme iron in sGC to form Chelate. L-Carnosine can also stimulate the regeneration of vitamin E, thereby prolonging its role as an antioxidant.
3. Application of L-Carnosine
At present, L-Carnosine has been widely used in many fields. In the pharmaceutical industry, L-Carnosine can be used as a drug for the treatment of cataracts, atherosclerosis, renal failure, Alzheimer's disease and other diseases. L-Carnosine can delay vision damage caused by aging, effectively prevent and treat cataracts and other aging-related diseases. L-Carnosine can selectively kill deformed cells. People in Japan and the former Soviet Union have applied for a patent to treat phenbuttin (a L-Carnosine enzyme inhibitor) as a therapeutically effective anti-tumor drug. Since L-L-Carnosine can remain in the gastric juice without dissociating quickly, it is now used as a membrane-protective antiulcer drug. In the food industry, adding L-Carnosine when storing fresh meat can improve the flavor of the meat and extend the shelf life.
The application of L-Carnosine in livestock production is still under experimental research. Our laboratory added L-Carnosine as a feed additive to the diet of yellow feather broilers, and found that 20mg/Kg L-Carnosine can significantly increase the IGF-1 level in the chicken serum and promote the growth of yellow feather broilers. Adding an appropriate amount of L-Carnosine to the culture medium of isolated chicken skeletal muscle cells can significantly increase the proliferation activity of skeletal muscle satellite cells and the secretion of 1GF-1. Since L-Carnosine is an endogenous dipeptide in animals, it has no residue or toxicity problems when it is used to feed animals. As a safe and healthy feed additive, it will have attractive application prospects in animal husbandry production.